Source code for spynnaker8

# Copyright (c) 2017-2019 The University of Manchester
# This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
# it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
# the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or
# (at your option) any later version.
# This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
# but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
# GNU General Public License for more details.
# You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
# along with this program.  If not, see <>.

The :py:mod:`spynnaker.pyNN` package contains the front end specifications
and implementation for the PyNN High-level API

This package contains the profile of that code for PyNN 0.9
# common imports
import logging
import numpy as __numpy
from pyNN import common as pynn_common
from pyNN.common import control as _pynn_control
from pyNN.recording import get_io
from pyNN.random import NumpyRNG, RandomDistribution as _PynnRandomDistribution
from import (
    Space, Line, Grid2D, Grid3D, Cuboid, Sphere, RandomStructure)
from import distance as _pynn_distance
from spinn_utilities.log import FormatAdapter
from spinn_front_end_common.utilities.exceptions import (
    ConfigurationException, SimulatorNotSetupException,
from spinn_front_end_common.utilities import globals_variables
from spynnaker.pyNN.models.abstract_pynn_model import AbstractPyNNModel

# connections
# noinspection PyUnresolvedReferences
from spynnaker.pyNN.models.neural_projections.connectors import (
    AllToAllConnector, ArrayConnector, CSAConnector,
    DistanceDependentProbabilityConnector, FixedNumberPostConnector,
    FixedNumberPreConnector, FixedProbabilityConnector,
    FromFileConnector, FromListConnector, IndexBasedProbabilityConnector,
    KernelConnector, MultapseConnector as FixedTotalNumberConnector,
    OneToOneConnector, SmallWorldConnector)

# synapse structures
from spynnaker.pyNN.models.neuron.synapse_dynamics import (
    SynapseDynamicsStatic as StaticSynapse)

# plastic stuff
from spynnaker.pyNN.models.neuron.synapse_dynamics import (
    SynapseDynamicsSTDP as
    STDPMechanism, SynapseDynamicsStructuralStatic as
    StructuralMechanismStatic, SynapseDynamicsStructuralSTDP as
from spynnaker.pyNN.models.neuron.plasticity.stdp.weight_dependence import (
    WeightDependenceAdditive as
    AdditiveWeightDependence, WeightDependenceMultiplicative as
from spynnaker.pyNN.models.neuron.plasticity.stdp.timing_dependence import (
    TimingDependenceSpikePair as
from spynnaker.pyNN.models.neuron.structural_plasticity.synaptogenesis\
    .partner_selection import (
        LastNeuronSelection, RandomSelection)
from spynnaker.pyNN.models.neuron.structural_plasticity.synaptogenesis\
    .formation import (
from spynnaker.pyNN.models.neuron.structural_plasticity.synaptogenesis\
    .elimination import (

# neuron stuff
# noinspection PyUnresolvedReferences
from spynnaker.pyNN.models.neuron.builds.if_cond_exp_base import (
    IFCondExpBase as IF_cond_exp)
# noinspection PyUnresolvedReferences
from spynnaker.pyNN.models.neuron.builds.if_curr_exp_base import (
    IFCurrExpBase as IF_curr_exp)
# noinspection PyUnresolvedReferences
from spynnaker.pyNN.models.neuron.builds.if_curr_alpha import (
    IFCurrAlpha as IF_curr_alpha)
# noinspection PyUnresolvedReferences
from spynnaker.pyNN.models.neuron.builds.if_curr_delta import (
    IFCurrDelta as IF_curr_delta)
# noinspection PyUnresolvedReferences
from spynnaker.pyNN.models.neuron.builds.izk_curr_exp_base import (
    IzkCurrExpBase as Izhikevich)
# noinspection PyUnresolvedReferences
from spynnaker.pyNN.models.spike_source.spike_source_array import (
# noinspection PyUnresolvedReferences
from spynnaker.pyNN.models.spike_source.spike_source_poisson import (

# pops
# noinspection PyUnresolvedReferences
from spynnaker.pyNN.models.populations import (
    Assembly, Population, PopulationView)

# projection
# noinspection PyUnresolvedReferences
from spynnaker.pyNN.models.projection import Projection as SpiNNakerProjection

from spynnaker8 import external_devices
from spynnaker8 import extra_models

# big stuff
from spynnaker8.spinnaker import SpiNNaker

#: The timestep to use of "auto" is specified as a timestep

logger = FormatAdapter(logging.getLogger(__name__))

__all__ = [
    # PyNN imports
    'Cuboid', 'distance', 'Grid2D', 'Grid3D', 'Line', 'NumpyRNG',
    'RandomDistribution', 'RandomStructure', 'Space', 'Sphere',

    # connections
    'AllToAllConnector', 'ArrayConnector', 'CSAConnector',
    'DistanceDependentProbabilityConnector', 'FixedNumberPostConnector',
    'FixedNumberPreConnector', 'FixedProbabilityConnector',
    'FromFileConnector', 'FromListConnector', 'IndexBasedProbabilityConnector',
    'FixedTotalNumberConnector', 'KernelConnector', 'OneToOneConnector',
    # synapse structures
    # plastic stuff
    'STDPMechanism', 'AdditiveWeightDependence',
    'MultiplicativeWeightDependence', 'SpikePairRule',
    # Structural plasticity by Petrut Bogdan
    'StructuralMechanismStatic', 'StructuralMechanismSTDP',
    'LastNeuronSelection', 'RandomSelection',
    'DistanceDependentFormation', 'RandomByWeightElimination',
    # neuron stuff
    'IF_cond_exp', 'IF_curr_exp', "IF_curr_alpha", "IF_curr_delta",
    'Izhikevich', 'SpikeSourceArray', 'SpikeSourcePoisson',
    # pops
    'Assembly', 'Population', 'PopulationView',
    # projection
    # External devices and extra models
    'external_devices', 'extra_models',
    # Stuff that we define
    'end', 'setup', 'run', 'run_until', 'run_for', 'num_processes', 'rank',
    'reset', 'set_number_of_neurons_per_core',
    'get_current_time', 'create', 'connect', 'get_time_step', 'get_min_delay',
    'get_max_delay', 'initialize', 'list_standard_models', 'name',
    'record', 'record_v', 'record_gsyn']

# Dynamically-extracted operations from PyNN
__pynn = {}

[docs]class RandomDistribution(_PynnRandomDistribution): """ Class which defines a next(n) method which returns an array of ``n``\ random numbers from a given distribution. :param str distribution: the name of a random number distribution. :param parameters_pos: parameters of the distribution, provided as a tuple. For the correct ordering, see `random.available_distributions`. :type parameters_pos: tuple or None :param rng: the random number generator to use, if a specific one is desired (e.g., to provide a seed). :type rng: ~pyNN.random.NumpyRNG or ~pyNN.random.GSLRNG or ~pyNN.random.NativeRNG or None :param parameters_named: parameters of the distribution, provided as keyword arguments. Parameters may be provided either through ``parameters_pos`` or through ``parameters_named``, but not both. All parameters must be provided, there are no default values. Parameter names are, in general, as used in Wikipedia. Examples:: >>> rd = RandomDistribution('uniform', (-70, -50)) >>> rd = RandomDistribution('normal', mu=0.5, sigma=0.1) >>> rng = NumpyRNG(seed=8658764) >>> rd = RandomDistribution('gamma', k=2.0, theta=5.0, rng=rng) .. list-table:: Available distributions :widths: auto :header-rows: 1 * - Name - Parameters - Comments * - ``binomial`` - ``n``, ``p`` - * - ``gamma`` - ``k``, ``theta`` - * - ``exponential`` - ``beta`` - * - ``lognormal`` - ``mu``, ``sigma`` - * - ``normal`` - ``mu``, ``sigma`` - * - ``normal_clipped`` - ``mu``, ``sigma``, ``low``, ``high`` - Values outside (``low``, ``high``) are redrawn * - ``normal_clipped_to_boundary`` - ``mu``, ``sigma``, ``low``, ``high`` - Values below/above ``low``/``high`` are set to ``low``/``high`` * - ``poisson`` - ``lambda_`` - Trailing underscore since ``lambda`` is a Python keyword * - ``uniform`` - ``low``, ``high`` - * - ``uniform_int`` - ``low``, ``high`` - Only generates integer values * - ``vonmises`` - ``mu``, ``kappa`` - """ def __repr__(self): return self.__str__()
# Patch the bugs in the PyNN documentation... Ugh!
[docs]def distance(src, tgt, mask=None, scale_factor=1.0, offset=0.0, periodic_boundaries=None): """ Return the Euclidian distance between two cells. :param src: :param tgt: :param ~numpy.ndarray mask: allows only certain dimensions to be considered, e.g.: * to ignore the z-dimension, use ``mask=array([0,1])`` * to ignore y, ``mask=array([0,2])`` * to just consider z-distance, ``mask=array([2])`` :param float scale_factor: allows for different units in the pre- and post-position (the post-synaptic position is multiplied by this quantity). :param float offset: :param periodic_boundaries: """ return _pynn_distance( src, tgt, mask, scale_factor, offset, periodic_boundaries)
[docs]def setup(timestep=_pynn_control.DEFAULT_TIMESTEP, min_delay=_pynn_control.DEFAULT_MIN_DELAY, max_delay=None, graph_label=None, database_socket_addresses=None, time_scale_factor=None, n_chips_required=None, n_boards_required=None, **extra_params): """ The main method needed to be called to make the PyNN 0.8 setup. Needs\ to be called before any other function :param timestep: the time step of the simulations in micro seconds if None the cfg value is used :type timestep: float or None :param min_delay: the min delay of the simulation :type min_delay: float or str :param max_delay: Ignored and logs a warning if provided :type max_delay: float or str or None :param graph_label: the label for the graph :type graph_label: str or None :param database_socket_addresses: the sockets used by external devices for the database notification protocol :type database_socket_addresses: iterable(~spinn_utilities.socket_address.SocketAddress) :param time_scale_factor: multiplicative factor to the machine time step (does not affect the neuron models accuracy) :type time_scale_factor: int or None :param n_chips_required: Deprecated! Use n_boards_required instead. Must be None if n_boards_required specified. :type n_chips_required: int or None :param n_boards_required: if you need to be allocated a machine (for spalloc) before building your graph, then fill this in with a general idea of the number of boards you need so that the spalloc system can allocate you a machine big enough for your needs. :type n_boards_required: int or None :param extra_params: other keyword argumets used to configure PyNN :return: MPI rank (always 0 on SpiNNaker) :rtype: int :raises ConfigurationException: if both ``n_chips_required`` and ``n_boards_required`` are used. """ # Check for "auto" values if timestep == "auto": timestep = SPYNNAKER_AUTO_TIMESTEP if min_delay == "auto": min_delay = timestep if max_delay: logger.warning( "max_delay is not supported by sPyNNaker so will be ignored") # pylint: disable=too-many-arguments, too-many-function-args # setup PyNN common stuff pynn_common.setup(timestep, min_delay, **extra_params) # create stuff simulator if globals_variables.has_simulator(): logger.warning("Calling setup a second time causes the previous " "simulator to be stopped and cleared.") # if already exists, kill and rebuild try: globals_variables.get_simulator().clear() except Exception: # pylint: disable=broad-except logger.exception("Error forcing previous simulation to clear") # add default label if needed if graph_label is None: graph_label = "PyNN0.8_graph" # create the main object for all stuff related software SpiNNaker( database_socket_addresses=database_socket_addresses, time_scale_factor=time_scale_factor, timestep=timestep, min_delay=min_delay, graph_label=graph_label, n_chips_required=n_chips_required, n_boards_required=n_boards_required) # warn about kwargs arguments if extra_params: logger.warning("Extra params {} have been applied to the setup " "command which we do not consider", extra_params) # get overloaded functions from PyNN in relation of our simulator object _create_overloaded_functions(globals_variables.get_simulator()) return rank()
[docs]def name(): """ Returns the name of the simulator :rtype: str """ return globals_variables.get_last_simulator().name
[docs]def Projection( presynaptic_population, postsynaptic_population, connector, synapse_type=None, source=None, receptor_type="excitatory", space=None, label=None): """ Used to support PEP 8 spelling correctly :param presynaptic_population: the source pop :type presynaptic_population: ~spynnaker.pyNN.models.populations.Population :param postsynaptic_population: the dest pop :type postsynaptic_population: ~spynnaker.pyNN.models.populations.Population :param AbstractConnector connector: the connector type :param AbstractStaticSynapseDynamics synapse_type: the synapse type :param None source: Unsupported; must be ``None`` :param str receptor_type: the receptor type :param space: the space object :type space: or None :param label: the label :type label: str or None :return: a projection object for SpiNNaker :rtype: ~spynnaker.pyNN.models.projection.Projection """ # pylint: disable=too-many-arguments return SpiNNakerProjection( pre_synaptic_population=presynaptic_population, post_synaptic_population=postsynaptic_population, connector=connector, synapse_type=synapse_type, source=source, receptor_type=receptor_type, space=space, label=label)
def _create_overloaded_functions(spinnaker_simulator): """ Creates functions that the main PyNN interface supports\ (given from PyNN) :param spinnaker_simulator: the simulator object we use underneath """ # overload the failed ones with now valid ones, now that we're in setup # phase. __pynn["run"], __pynn["run_until"] = pynn_common.build_run( spinnaker_simulator) __pynn["get_current_time"], __pynn["get_time_step"], \ __pynn["get_min_delay"], __pynn["get_max_delay"], \ __pynn["num_processes"], __pynn["rank"] = \ pynn_common.build_state_queries(spinnaker_simulator) __pynn["reset"] = pynn_common.build_reset(spinnaker_simulator) __pynn["create"] = pynn_common.build_create(Population) __pynn["connect"] = pynn_common.build_connect( Projection, FixedProbabilityConnector, StaticSynapse) __pynn["record"] = pynn_common.build_record(spinnaker_simulator)
[docs]def end(_=True): """ Cleans up the SpiNNaker machine and software :param _: was named compatible_output, which we don't care about, so is a non-existent parameter """ try: simulator = globals_variables.get_simulator() except SimulatorShutdownException: logger.warning("Second call to end ignored") return except SimulatorNotSetupException: logger.exception("Calling end before setup makes no sense ignoring!") return for (population, variables, filename) in \ simulator.write_on_end: io = get_io(filename) population.write_data(io, variables) simulator.write_on_end = [] simulator.stop()
[docs]def record_v(source, filename): """ Deprecated method for getting voltage.\ This is not documented in the public facing API. .. deprecated:: 5.0 :param source: the population / view / assembly to record :type source: ~spynnaker.pyNN.models.populations.Population or ~spynnaker.pyNN.models.populations.PopulationView :param str filename: the neo file to write to :rtype: None """ logger.warning( "Using record_v is deprecated. Use record('v') function instead") record(['v'], source, filename)
[docs]def record_gsyn(source, filename): """ Deprecated method for getting both types of gsyn.\ This is not documented in the public facing API .. deprecated:: 5.0 :param source: the population / view / assembly to record :type source: ~spynnaker.pyNN.models.populations.Population or ~spynnaker.pyNN.models.populations.PopulationView :param str filename: the neo file to write to """ logger.warning( "Using record_gsyn is deprecated. Use record('gsyn_exc') and/or" " record('gsyn_inh') function instead") record(['gsyn_exc', 'gsyn_inh'], source, filename)
[docs]def list_standard_models(): """ Return a list of all the StandardCellType classes available for this\ simulator. :rtype: list(str) """ results = list() for (key, obj) in globals().items(): if isinstance(obj, type) and issubclass(obj, AbstractPyNNModel): results.append(key) return results
[docs]def set_number_of_neurons_per_core(neuron_type, max_permitted): """ Sets a ceiling on the number of neurons of a given type that can be\ placed on a single core. :param type(AbstractPopulationVertex) neuron_type: neuron type :param int max_permitted: the number to set to """ if isinstance(neuron_type, str): msg = "set_number_of_neurons_per_core call now expects " \ "neuron_type as a class instead of as a str" raise ConfigurationException(msg) simulator = globals_variables.get_simulator() simulator.set_number_of_neurons_per_core( neuron_type, max_permitted)
# These methods will defer to PyNN methods if a simulator exists
[docs]def connect(pre, post, weight=0.0, delay=None, receptor_type=None, p=1, rng=None): """ Builds a projection :param ~spynnaker.pyNN.models.populations.Population pre: source pop :param ~spynnaker.pyNN.models.populations.Population post: destination pop :param float weight: weight of the connections :param float delay: the delay of the connections :param str receptor_type: excitatory / inhibitory :param float p: probability :param ~pyNN.random.NumpyRNG rng: random number generator """ # pylint: disable=too-many-arguments globals_variables.check_simulator() __pynn["connect"](pre, post, weight, delay, receptor_type, p, rng)
[docs]def create(cellclass, cellparams=None, n=1): """ Builds a population with certain params :param cellclass: population class :type cellclass: type or AbstractPyNNModel :param cellparams: population params. :param int n: n neurons :rtype: ~spynnaker.pyNN.models.populations.Population """ globals_variables.check_simulator() return __pynn["create"](cellclass, cellparams, n)
def NativeRNG(seed_value): """ Fixes the random number generator's seed :param seed_value: :type seed_value: int or list(int) or ~numpy.ndarray(int32) """ __numpy.random.seed(seed_value)
[docs]def get_current_time(): """ Gets the time within the simulation :return: returns the current time """ globals_variables.check_simulator() return __pynn["get_current_time"]()
[docs]def get_min_delay(): """ The minimum allowed synaptic delay; delays will be clamped to be at\ least this. :return: returns the min delay of the simulation :rtype: int """ globals_variables.check_simulator() return __pynn["get_min_delay"]()
[docs]def get_max_delay(): """ Part of the PyNN api but does not make sense for sPyNNaker as different Projection, Vertex splitter combination could have different delays they can support Most likely value is timestep * 144 :raises NotImplementedError: As there is no system wide max_delay """ raise NotImplementedError( "sPyNNaker does not have a system wide max_delay")
[docs]def get_time_step(): """ The integration time step :return: get the time step of the simulation (in ms) :rtype: float """ globals_variables.check_simulator() return float(__pynn["get_time_step"]())
[docs]def initialize(cells, **initial_values): """ Sets cells to be initialised to the given values :param cells: the cells to change params on :type cells: ~spynnaker.pyNN.models.populations.Population or ~spynnaker.pyNN.models.populations.PopulationView :param initial_values: the params and their values to change """ globals_variables.check_simulator() pynn_common.initialize(cells, **initial_values)
[docs]def num_processes(): """ The number of MPI processes. .. note:: Always 1 on SpiNNaker, which doesn't use MPI. :return: the number of MPI processes :rtype: int """ globals_variables.check_simulator() return __pynn["num_processes"]()
[docs]def rank(): """ The MPI rank of the current node. .. note:: Always 0 on SpiNNaker, which doesn't use MPI. :return: MPI rank :rtype: int """ globals_variables.check_simulator() return __pynn["rank"]()
[docs]def record(variables, source, filename, sampling_interval=None, annotations=None): """ Sets variables to be recorded. :param variables: may be either a single variable name or a list of variable names. For a given celltype class, celltype.recordable contains a list of variables that can be recorded for that celltype. :type variables: str or list(str) :param source: where to record from :type source: ~spynnaker.pyNN.models.populations.Population or ~spynnaker.pyNN.models.populations.PopulationView :param str filename: file name to write data to :param sampling_interval: how often to sample the recording, not ignored so far :param annotations: the annotations to data writers :type annotations: dict(str, ...) :return: neo object :rtype: ~neo.core.Block """ globals_variables.check_simulator() return __pynn["record"](variables, source, filename, sampling_interval, annotations)
[docs]def reset(annotations=None): """ Resets the simulation to t = 0 :param annotations: the annotations to the data objects :type annotations: dict(str, ...) :rtype: None """ if annotations is None: annotations = {} globals_variables.check_simulator() __pynn["reset"](annotations)
[docs]def run(simtime, callbacks=None): """ The run() function advances the simulation for a given number of \ milliseconds, e.g.: :param float simtime: time to run for (in milliseconds) :param callbacks: callbacks to run :return: the actual simulation time that the simulation stopped at :rtype: float """ globals_variables.check_simulator() return __pynn["run"](simtime, callbacks=callbacks)
# left here because needs to be done, and no better place to put it # (ABS don't like it, but will put up with it) run_for = run
[docs]def run_until(tstop): """ Run until a (simulation) time period has completed. :param float tstop: the time to stop at (in milliseconds) :return: the actual simulation time that the simulation stopped at :rtype: float """ globals_variables.check_simulator() return __pynn["run_until"](tstop)
def get_machine(): """ Get the SpiNNaker machine in use. :return: the machine object :rtype: ~spinn_machine.Machine """ globals_variables.check_simulator() return globals_variables.get_simulator().machine